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按性能与特征划分可分äؓåQšé«˜æ¸©é™¶ç“—÷€è¶…¼‹¬è´¨é™¶ç“·ã€é«˜éŸ§é™¶ç“—÷€åŠå¯ég½“陶瓷。电解质陶瓷、磁性陶瓗÷€å¯¼ç”‰|€§é™¶ç“ïL­‰ã€‚随着成分、结构和工艺的不断改˜q›ï¼Œæ–°åž‹é™¶ç“·å±‚出不穷。按其应用不同划分又可将它们分äؓ工程¾l“构陶瓷和功能陶瓷两¾c…R€?br /> <br /> 在工½E‹ç»“构上使用的陶ç“ïL§°ä¸ºå·¥½E‹é™¶ç“øP¼Œå®ƒä¸»è¦åœ¨é«˜æ¸©ä¸‹ä‹É用,也称高温¾l“构陶瓷。这¾c»é™¶ç“·ä»¥æ°§åŒ–铝äؓ主要原料åQŒå…·æœ‰åœ¨é«˜æ¸©ä¸‹å¼ºåº¦é«˜ã€ç¡¬åº¦å¤§ã€æŠ—氧化、耐腐蚀、耐磨损、耐烧蚀½{‰ä¼˜ç‚¹ï¼Œåœ¨ç©ºæ°”中可以耐受1980℃的高温åQŒæ˜¯½Iºé—´æŠ€æœ¯ã€å†›äº‹æŠ€æœ¯ã€åŽŸå­èƒ½ã€ä¸šåŠåŒ–工设备等领域中的重要材料。工½E‹é™¶ç“ähœ‰è®¸å¤š¿Uç±»åQŒä½†ç›®å‰ä¸–界上研½I¶æœ€å¤šï¼Œè®¤äؓ最有发展前途的是氯化硅ã€?a href="/thg/" target="_blank">¼„›_Œ–¼‹?/a>和增韧氧化物三类材料ã€?br /> <br /> 压电陶瓷是一¿Uèƒ½ž®†åŽ‹åŠ›è{变äؓ电能的功能陶ç“øP¼Œå“ªæ€•æ˜¯åƒå£°æ³¢éœ‡åŠ¨äñ”生的微小的压力也能够使它们发生åŞ变,从而ä‹É陶瓷表面带电。用压电陶瓷æŸ×ƒ»£æ›¿æ™®é€šç«çŸ›_ˆ¶æˆçš„气体电子打火机,能够˜qžç®‹æ‰“火几万‹Æ¡ã€?br /> <br /> 透明陶瓷的主要成分有氧化镁、氧化钙、氟化钙½{‰ã€‚透明陶瓷不但能透过光线åQŒè¿˜å…ähœ‰å¾ˆé«˜çš„机械强度和¼‹¬åº¦ã€‚透明陶瓷是一¿Uå¾ˆå¥½çš„透明防弹材料åQŒè¿˜å¯ä»¥ç”¨æ¥åˆ‰™€ èžR床上的高速切削刀、喷气发动机的零件等åQŒç”šè‡›_¯ä»¥ä»£æ›¿ä¸é”ˆé’¢ã€?br /> <br /> 氮化¼‹…高强度陶瓷以强度高著称åQŒå¯ç”¨äºŽåˆ‰™€ ç‡ƒæ°”轮机的燃烧器、叶片、涡轮等ã€?br /> <br /> ¾_‘Ö¯†é™¶ç“·æ°¨åŒ–¼‹…代曉K‡‘属制造发动机的耐热部äšgåQŒèƒ½å¤§å¹…度提高工件温度,从而提高热效率åQŒé™ä½Žç‡ƒæ–™æ¶ˆè€—,节约能源åQŒå‡ž®‘发动机的体¿U¯å’Œé‡é‡åQŒè€Œä¸”又代替了如镍、铬、钠½{‰é‡è¦é‡‘属材料,所以,被äh们认为是对发动机的一场革命。æÛ化硅可用多种æ–ÒŽ³•åˆ¶å¤‡åQŒå·¥ä¸šä¸Šæ™®éé‡‡ç”¨é«˜çº¯¼‹…与¾U¯æÛåœ?600K反应后获得:<br /> <br /> 3Si+2N2 =Si3N4(条äšg1600K)<br /> <br /> 也可用化学气相沉¿U¯æ³•åQŒä‹ÉSiCl4和N2在H2气氛保护下反应,产物Si3N4¿U¯åœ¨çŸ›_¢¨åŸÞZ½“上,形成一层致密的Si3N4层。此法得到的氮化¼‹…纯度较高,其反应如下:<br /> <br /> SiCl4+2N2+6H2→Si3N4+12HCl<br /> <br /> 氮化¼‹…、碳化硅½{‰æ–°åž‹é™¶ç“¯‚¿˜å¯ç”¨æ¥åˆ¶é€ å‘动机的叶片、切削刀兗÷€æœºæ¢°å¯†ž®äšg、èáuæ‰Ñ€ç«½Ž­å–·å˜´ã€ç‚‰å­ç®¡é“ç­‰åQŒå…·æœ‰éžå¸¸å¹¿æ³›çš„用途ã€?br /> <br /> 利用陶瓷对声、光、电、磁、热½{‰ç‰©ç†æ€§èƒ½æ‰€å…ähœ‰çš„特ŒDŠåŠŸèƒ½è€Œåˆ¶é€ çš„陶瓷材料¿UîCؓ功能陶瓷。功能陶ç“ïL§¾cȝ¹å¤šï¼Œç”¨é€”各异。例如,æ ÒŽ®é™¶ç“·ç”µå­¦æ€§è´¨çš„差异可制成导电陶瓷、半å¯ég½“陶瓷、介电陶瓗÷€ç»¾~˜é™¶ç“ïL­‰ç”µå­ææ–™åQŒç”¨äºŽåˆ¶ä½œç”µå®¹å™¨ã€ç”µé˜Õd™¨ã€ç”µå­å·¥ä¸šä¸­çš„高温高频器ä»Óž¼Œå˜åŽ‹å™¨ç­‰å½¢åŞ色色的电子零件。利用陶ç“ïLš„光学性能可制造固体激光材料、光导纤¾l´ã€å…‰å‚¨å­˜ææ–™åŠå„¿Ué™¶ç“·ä¼ æ„Ÿå™¨ã€‚此外,陶瓷˜q˜ç”¨ä½œåŽ‹ç”‰|æ–™ã€ç£æ€§ææ–™ã€åŸºåº•ææ–™ç­‰ã€‚æ€ÖM¹‹åQŒæ–°å‰‚陶ç“ähæ–™å‡ ä¹ŽéåŠçŽ°ä»£ç§‘技的每一个领域,应用前景十分òq‰K˜”ã€?br /> <div class="zjj"> <br /> </div> </p> <br /></p> </div> <div class="pagess"> <ul class="zjj"><div class="zjj">下一æ?<a href="155.html">¼‹¬è´¨åˆé‡‘生äñ”国家以中国市åœÞZ½œä¸ºé•¿æœŸç›®æ ?/a></div> </ul> </div> <div class="info_key">相关标签åQ?a href='/key.aspx?k=%cc%d5%b4%c9'>陶瓷</a>,</div> </div> <div class="clear"></div> <div class="cateslist"> <dl> <dt>相关产品</dt> <dd> <div class="img"> <a href="/supply/33.html" title="防弹陶瓷大环和整æ? rel="nofollow"><img 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